Mitochondria Research

Hot Topic

Conventional and Unique Quality Control Pathway of Mitochondria

Mitochondrial function is closely related to the onset of the neurodegenerative disorder and the aging process. From this background, much attention has been paid to elucidating the mitochondrial quality control pathway. Here, we introduce you to three individual pathways (extracellular vesicles (EVs)-related release pathway, Lysosome-related exocytosis, and Mitophagy) for mitochondrial quality control.
EVs-related release pathway Lysosome-related exocytosis Mitophagy
Ejection of damaged mitochondria and their removal by macrophages ensure efficient thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue 
(Marco Rosina, et al., Cell Metabolism, 34, 533-548, 2022)
Mitolysosome exocytosis, a mitophagy-independent mitochondrial quality control in flunarizine-induced parkinsonism-like symptoms 
(Feixiang Bao, et al., Science Advances, 8, eabk2376, 2022)
Neuronal induction of BNIP3-mediated mitophagy slows systemic aging in Drosophila 
(Edward T. Schmid, et al., Nature Aging, 2, 494-507, 2022)
  • - Brown adipocytes eliminate damaged mitochondrial parts through EVs
  • - Thermogenic stimuli increase the release of mitochondrial EVs
  • - EVs exert a negative autocrine action on brown adipocyte thermogenesis
  • - bMACs actively take up mitochondrial EVs ensuring optimal brown adipose tissue thermogenesis
  • - Flunarizine (FNZ), a drug whose chronic use causes parkinsonism, led to parkinsonism-like motor dysfunction in mice
  • - FNZ induced mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased mitochondrial mass specifically in the brain
  • - Mitochondria were engulfed by lysosomes independent of mitophagy, followed by VAMP2- and STX4-dependent exocytosis
  • - The mitochondria-free cells generated FNZ-dependent method could survive for nearly 1 month
  • - Aging leads to a decline in mitophagy in the Drosophila brain with a concomitant increase in mitochondrial content
  • - Induction of BNIP3 in the adult nervous system induces mitophagy and prevents the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in the aged brain
  • - Neuronal induction of BNIP3-mediated mitophagy increases organismal longevity and healthspan
  • - BNIP3-mediated mitophagy in the nervous system improves muscle and intestinal homeostasis in aged flies
Related Technique in this topic
           Mitochondrial membrane potential detection  JC-1 MitoMP Detection Kit and MT-1 MitoMP Detection Kit
           Mitochondrial superoxide detection mtSOX Deep Red - Mitochondrial Superoxide Detection
           Mitophagy detection Mitophagy Detection Kit
           Oxygen consumption rate assay Extracellular OCR Plate Assay Kit
           EVs Isolation ExoIsolator Exosome Isolation Kit
           EVs labeling ExoSparkler Exosome Membrane Labeling Kit-GreenRedDeep red
           Lysosomal function assay Lysosomal pH and mass detection Kit

Learn more about application data with multiple products here

Selection guide for mitochondria-related reagents

Mitochondria research is very multi-faceted, because the multi-functional organelle is not only involved in energy production in a cell, but other additional cellular functions. The active cycle of mitochondrial fusion and division induces morphological changes, which is called mitochondrial dynamics. Abnormalities in morphological control of mitochondria are associated with neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, aging, and so on. Therefore, the demand for long-term observation of mitochondrial dynamics has recently been increasing.

Selection Guide of Reagents

The following table lists reagents for mitochondrial research designed to stain and detect mitochondria (MitoBright LT, MitoTracker, etc.), mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1, TMRM, TMRE, etc.), reactive oxygen species AKA ‘ROS’ (mtSOX, MitoSOX, etc.), mitophagy, and lipid peroxides.

Mitophagy

Mitophagy
Reagent Mtphagy Dye Keima-Red
Principle Mtphagy Dye (included in Mitophagy Detection Kit) is a pH-sensitive fluorescent probe that accumulates in mitochondria and emits red fluorescence due to acidic conditions in a lysosome. A pH-sentitive ratiometric fluorescent protein. The excitation spectrum changes accoring to pH. This protein shows high fluorescence ratio (Ex. 550 nm/440 nm) values in a lysozome.
Fixed cell staining
Live-cell staining Yes Yes
Fixation after live-cell staining
Staining time > 30 min
Ex / Em 530 / 700 440, 550 / 620
Product code MD01MT02

Lipophilic peroxide / Singlet oxygen / Superoxide

  Lipophilic peroxide Singlet oxygen Superoxide  
Reagent MitoPeDPP Si-DMA mtSOX Deep Red MitoSOX
Principle A cell-permeant fluorescent probe that accumulates in mitochondria and specifically reacts with lipophilic peroxides in mitochondria to emit fluorescence. A cell-permeant fluorescent probe that accumulates in mitochondria and specifically reacts with singlet oxigen generated in mitochondria to emit red fluorescence. A cell-permeant fluorescent probe that accumulates in mitochondria and reacts with superoxide generated in mitochondria to emit fluorescence. A cell-permeant fluorescent probe that accumulates in mitochondria and reacts with superoxide generated in mitochondria to emit red fluorescence.
Fixed cell staining
Live-cell staining Yes Yes Yes Yes
Fixation after live-cell staining
Staining time > 15 min > 45 min > 10 min > 10 min
Ex / Em 452 / 470 644 / 670 540 / 670 510 / 590
Product code M466 MT05 MT14

Membrane potential

Membrane potential
Reagent JC-1 MT-1 TMRM, TMRE
Principle A cell-permeant ratiometric fluorescent dye that accumulates in intact mitochondria due to the membrane potential. The excitation spectrum changes according to the mitochondria membrane potential. Cell-permeant fluorescent dyes that accumulate in intact mitochondria due to the membrane potential. MT-1 is extremely photostable and more sensitive than JC-1 and can provide equivalent detection sensitivity to TMRE. Cell-permeant fluorescent dyes that accumulate in intact mitochondria due to the membrane potential. Diffusion of the probes occurs in a damaged mitochondria that has the decreased membrane potential.
Fixed cell staining
Live-cell staining Yes Yes Yes
Fixation after live-cell staining Yes
Staining time 30-60 min 30 min 30-60 min
Ex / Em Monomer: 514 / 529
J-aggregation: 585/590
530-560 / 570-640 550 / 575
Product code MT09 MT13

Mitochondria staining

Mitochondria staining
Reagent MitoBright LT series MitoBright IM Red MitoTracker series Rhodamine 123
Principle Cell-permeant fluorescent dyes that accumulate in intact mitochondria due to the membrane potential. Cell-permeant fluorescent dyes that accumulate in intact mitochondria due to the membrane potential and covalently binds to proteins and other biomolecules. Cell-permeant fluorescent dyes that accumulate in intact mitochondria due to the membrane potential. Cell-permeant fluorescent dye that accumulates in intact mitochondria due to the membrane potential.
Fixed cell staining
Live-cell staining Yes Yes Yes Yes
Fixation after live-cell staining Yes Yes
Staining time 30 min 30 min 15-45 min > 15 min
Ex / Em 493 / 508, 547 / 563, 643 / 663 548 / 566 490 / 516 ~
644 / 665
507 / 529
Product code MT10, MT11,MT12 MT15 R233

Metal Ion Detection

   Iron ion (Fe2+) Calcium ion (Ca2+)
Reagent Mito-FerroGreen Rhod2-AM
Principle A cell-permeant fluorescent probe that accumulates in mitochondria and specifically reacts with ferrous ion in mitochondria to emit green fluorescence. A cell-permeant fluorescent probe that accumulates in mitochondria and specifically reacts with calcium ion in mitochondria to emit red fluorescence.
Fixed cell staining
Live-cell staining Yes Yes
Fixation after live-cell staining
Staining time 30 min 30-60 min
Ex / Em 505 / 535 553 / 576
Product code M489 R002 

Mitochondria Research

Application Products
Mitophagy Detection Mitophagy Detection Kit
Mitochondrial Phospholipid Peroxidase Detection MitoPeDPP
Mitochondrial Ferrous Ion Detection Mito-FerroGreen
Mitochondrial Singlet Oxygen Detection Si-DMA for Mitochondrial Singlet Oxygen Imaging
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential JC-1 MitoMP Detection Kit
MT-1 MitoMP Detection Kit
Mitochondria Staining MitoBright LT Green
MitoBright LT Red
MitoBright LT Deep Red
MitoBright IM Red for Immunostaining
-Cellstain- MitoRed
-Cellstain- Rh123

Product Classification

Product Classification