Cellular Senescence Detection Kit - SPiDER-βGal

Cellular Senescence Detection Kit - SPiDER-<i>β</i>Gal

Senescence Cell Detection

  • Product code
    SG03  Cellular Senescence Detection Kit - SPiDER-βGal
Unit size Price Item Code

∼ Feature ∼
- Quantify SA-βgal
- Applicable for Living Cell and Fixed Cell
- Staining time 30 min.

Senescence Map Selection Guide



DNA damages of the normal cells are caused by repeated cell division and oxidative stress. Cellular Senescence, a state of irreversible growth arrest, can be triggered in order to prevent DNA-damaged cells from growing. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), which is overexpressed in senescent cells, has been widely used as a marker of cellular senescence. Although X-gal is a well known reagent to detect SA-β-gal, these are following disadvantages: 1) requirement of fixed cells due to the poor cell-permeability, 2) low quantitative capability because of the difficulty of the determination of visual difference between stained cells and not stained cells, 3) requirement of a long time of staining.

Cellular Senescence Detection Kit – SPiDER-βGal allows to detect SA-β-gal with high sensitivity and ease of use. SPiDER-βGal is a new reagent to detect β-galactosidase which possesses a high cell-permeability and a high retentivity inside cells. SA-β-gal are detected specifically not only in living cells but also fixed cells by using a reagent (Bafilomycin A1) to inhibit endogenous β-galactosidase activity. Therefore, SPiDER-βGal can be applied to quantitative analysis by flow cytometry.

Recent work from Dr. Kim et al. at Mayo Clinic used our Cellular Senescence Detection Kit – SPiDER-βGal to evaluate cellular senescence in endothelial cells. They did staining of SA-βGal in cells in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) and co-stained the cells with CD31 which is a marker of endothelilal cells. They showed that ARAS + Elamipretide* treatment slightly improved endothelial cell senescence. Unlike commercial available probes used for detection of β-Galactosidase, SPiDER-βGal contained in the kit possesses high intracellular retention. The key feature of this product is that it can be used to co-stain SA-β-Gal and other markers. Our kit is a useful tool for cellular senescence research.
*Elamipretide: mitochondria-targeted peptide

For more information on data, please refer to the publication below:
S. R. Kim, A. Eirin, X. Zhang, A. Lerman and L. O. Lerman, “Mitochondrial Protection Partly Mitigates Kidney Cellular Senescence in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis.”, Cell. Physiol. Biochem. ., 2019, 52, 617.



Open References


No. Sample Type Instrument Citation(Link)




Flow Cytometry
T. Doura, M. Kamiya, F. Obata, Y. Yamaguchi, T. Y. Hiyama, T. Matsuda, A. Fukamizu, M. Noda, M. Miura, Y. Urano, "Detection of LacZ-Positive Cells in Living Tissue with Single-Cell Resolution."Angew Chem Int Ed Engl., 2016, 55, 33


(Mouse Adipose Tissue)

Microscopy T. Sugizaki, S. Zhu, G. Guo, A. Matsumoto, J. Zhao, M. Endo, H. Horiguchi, J. Morinaga, Z. Tian, T. Kadomatsu, K. Miyata, H. Itoh & Y. Oike, "Treatment of diabetic mice with the SGLT2 inhibitor TA-1887 antagonizes diabetic cachexia and decreases mortality"Nature Partner Journal:Aging and Mechanisms of Disease., 2017, doi:10.1038/s41514-017-0012-0.




(Ki67, cyclin B1)            

Microscopy A. Park, I. Tsunoda and O. Yoshie, "Heat shock protein 27 promotes cell cycle progression by down-regulating E2F transcription factor 4 and retinoblastoma family protein p130"J. Biol. Chem.2018, doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.003310 .
4) Cell (A549)


Flow Cytometry

R. Tanino, Y. Tsubata, N. Harashima, M. Harada and T. Isobe, "Novel drug-resistance mechanisms of pemetrexed-treated non-small cell lung cancer"Oncotarget., 2018, 9, (24), 16807.
5) Cell(NHDF) Microscopy Y. Kitahiro, A. Koike, A. Sonoki, M. Muto, K. Ozaki and M. Shibano. , "Anti-inflammatory activities of Ophiopogonis Radix on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular senescence of normal human dermal fibroblasts."J Nat Med., 2018, 72, 905.


(Aged Mouse Intestinal Epithelium Organoid) 

Microscopy R. Uchida, Y. Saito, K. Nogami, Y. Kajiyama, Y. Suzuki, Y. Kawase, T. Nakaoka, T. Muramatsu, M. Kimura and H. Saito, "Epigenetic silencing of Lgr5 induces senescence of intestinal epithelial organoids during the process of aging"NPJ Aging Mech Dis., 2018, doi:10.1038/s41514-018-0031-5.

Tissue(Frozen Kidney Slide)

Microscopy S. R. Kim, A. Eirin, X. Zhang, A. Lerman and L. O. Lerman, "Mitochondrial Protection Partly Mitigates Kidney Cellular Senescence in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis."Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2019, 52, 617.

Cell(HN6, HN12, HN13)

Flow Cytometry Liana P. Webber, Veronica Q. Yujra, Pablo A. Vargas, Manoela D. Martins. Cristiane H. Squarize, Rogerio M. Castilho, "Interference with the bromodomain epigenome readers drives p21 expression and tumor senescence"Cancer Letters., 2019, doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2019.06.019.


Flow Cytometry H. Ise, K. Matsunaga, M. Shinohara and Y. Sakai, Improved Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Based on Interactions between N-Acetylglucosamine-Bearing Polymers and Cell-Surface Vimentin "Stem Cells Int., 2019, 4341286, 13.

Cell(Mouse Corneal stroma)

Flow Cytometry X. Wang, M. Qu, J. Li, P. Danielson, L. Yang and Q. Zhou, Induction of Fibroblast Senescence During Mouse Corneal Wound Healing."Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2019, 60, (10), 3669.


Flow Cytometry  Y. Nakatani, H. Kiyonari and T. Kondo, Ecrg4 deficiency extends the replicative capacity of neural stem cells in a Foxg1-dependent manner."Development., 2019, 146, (4), 18.

Cell(HaCaT, HEK001)

Microscopy Y. S. Ryu, K. A. Kang, M. J. Piao, M. J. Ahn, J. M. Yi, G. Bossis, Y. M. Hyun, C. O. Park and J. W. Hyun, Particulate matter-induced senescence of skin keratinocytes involves oxidative stress-dependent epigenetic modifications"Exp. Mol. Med., 2019, 51, 108.


Microscopy E. M. Angela Ibler, E. Mohamed, L. N. Kathryn, A. B. Natalia, F. E. K. Sherif and H. Daniel, Typhoid toxin exhausts the RPA response to DNA replication stress driving senescence and Salmonella infection'Nat Commun., 2019, 10, 4040.
14) - (Review) Flow Cytometry  B.L. Torres, A. Estepa-Fernandez, M. Rovira, M. Oraez, M. Serrano, R. Martinez-Manez and F. Sancenon,"The chemistry of senescence."The chemistry of senescence., 2019, (3), 426-411


Microscopy N. Wang, H. Wang, L. Li, Y. Li and R. Zhang, "β-Asarone Inhibits Amyloid-β by Promoting Autophagy in a Cell Model of Alzheimer's Disease."Front Pharmacol., 2020, 10, 1529


Flow Cytometry Z. Wang, J. Gao, Y. Ohno, H. Liu and C. Xu, "Rosiglitazone ameliorates senescence and promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer induced by olaparib."Cancer Chemother Pharmacol., 2020.


(Mouse Frozen Kidney Slide)


 Flow Cytometry
J. H. Cho, E. Kim, Y. Son, D. Lee, Y. S. Park, J. H. Choi, K. Cho, K. Kwon and J. Kim, "CD9 Induces Cellular Senescence and Aggravates Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation."Cell Death Differ.2020, doi: 10.1038/s41418-020-0537-9

Cell(T cell)

Flow Cytometry S. Yoshida, H. Nakagami, H. Hayashi, Y. Ikeda, J. Sun, A. Tenma, H. Tomioka, T. Kaawano, M. Shimamura, R. Morishita and H. Rakugi, "The CD153 vaccine is a senotherapeutic option for preventing the accumulation of senescent T cells in mice."Nat. Commun., 2020, 11, (2482), doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16347-w


Microscopy N. Wang, H. Wang, L. Li, Y. Li and R. Zhang, "β-Asarone Inhibits Amyloid-β by Promoting Autophagy in a Cell Model of Alzheimer's Disease."Front Pharmacol., 2020, 10, 1529


Microscopy T. Yamazaki, H. Suzuki, S. Yamada, K. Ohshio, M. Sugamata, T. Yamada and Y. Morita, "Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 Suppresses Inflammatory Stress-Induced Premature Cellular Senescence of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Reduces Ocular Disorders in Healthy Humans”, Int J Mol Sci, 2020, 21(14), 5091
21) Cell(Epithelial cells of zebrafish) Microscopy Y. Haraoka, Y. Akieda, Y. Nagai, C. Mogi and T. Ishitani, "Zebrafish imaging reveals TP53 mutation switching oncogene-induced senescence from suppressor to driver in primary tumorigenesis"Nat. Commun.2022, doi:10.1038/s41467-022-29061-6.


Q & A


Are there any advices when observing the senescent cells?


Lipofuscin is a fluorescent pigment that accumulates in a variety of cell types with age. Lipofuscin consists of autofluorescent granules and may results in high background for fluorescence microscopy. In order to achieve accurate SA-β-gal activity assay in senescent cells, we recommend to prepare samples without SPiDER-βGal staining. Please compare fluorescence intensity of both cells with or without SPiDER-βGal staining.


> For Flow Cytometry Detection

Step 1. Prepare senescent cells and non-senescent cells. Measure MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) of samples below.

[Senescent cells]

Sample A: The cells stained with SPiDER-βGal

Sample B: The cells without SPiDER-βGal staining

[Non-senescent cells]

Sample A’: The cells stained with SPiDER-βGal

Sample B’: The cells without SPiDER-βGal staining


Step 2. Calculate SA-β-gal activity (senescent cells) with the following formula

SA-β-gal activity (senescent cells) = MFI of Sample A - MFI of Sample B


Step 3. Calculate SA-β-gal activity (non-senescent cells) with the following formula

SA-β-gal activity (non-senescent cells) = MFI of Sample A’ - MFI of Sample B’

  • Determine the SA-β-gal activity by comparing the SA-β-gal activity between senescent cells and non-senescent cells.
  • Change of SA-β-gal activity associated with senescence = (Value from Step 2- value from Step 3)


>For Microscopy

Step 1. Prepare senescent cells without SPiDER-βGal staining and observe fluorescent image.

Step 2. Adjust detection sensitivity in microscopy to reduce background autofluorescence of lipofuscin.

Step 3. Observe fluorescent image of senescent cells and non-senescent cells under the settled condition in step 2.


Background in control cells


Reagents were not prepared correctly. Check that the reagents were stored correctly. SPiDER-βGal DMSO stock solution and Bafilomycin A1 DMSO stock solution is stable for 1 month at -20 ℃. SPiDER-βGal working solution and Bafilomycin A1 working solution can’t be stored. Be sure to use the working solution immediately.


Background in senescent cells without adding SPiDER-βGal working solution


Lipofuscin, which consists of autofluorescent granules, accumulated in the senescent cells. In order to achieve accurate SA-β-gal activity assay in senescent cells, we recommend to prepare samples without SPiDER-βGal staining. Please compare fluorescence intensity of both cells with / without SPiDER-βGal staining. For Microscopy or Flow Cytometry.

Please visit product page and check “FAQ”


Background in fix cells assay


The incubation with SPiDER-βGal working solution was done in a 5% CO2 incubator. We recommend not to use a 5% CO2 incubator during incubation with SPiDER-βGal working solution. If incubation is done in a 5% CO2 incubator, the pH of the buffer may become acidic. Acidic pH results in higher background from the endogenous β-galactosidase activity and it would be difficult to distinguish between control cells and senescent cells. Please incubate the plate in a dry incubator without CO2 .


No difference in fluorescence intensity between senescent cells and control cells


Cellular senescence wasn’t induced. Please prepare for positive control. Please visit product page and check “Positive Control”


Low fluorescence reading


Incubation time with SPiDER-βGal working solution was short. Optimize the incubation time (~ 60 min). Concentration of SPiDER-βGal working solution was low. Optimize the concentration (~2 times the concentration described in the technical manual).

Handling and storage condition

Handling and storage condition

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