02 Oxidative Stress

GSSG/GSH Quantification Kit

GSSG/GSH Quantification Kit

Glutathione Quantification

  • Optimized Enzymatic recycling system
  • High reproducibility for detecting GSH, GSSG and total glutathione individually
  • Contain optimized Masking Reagent for exclusive measurement of GSSG
  • Easy and Simple procedure; takes 1-2 hours
  • Product code
    G257  GSSG/GSH Quantification Kit
Unit size Price Item Code
200 tests G257-10
200 tests ・ Enzyme Solution
・ Coenzyme
・ Buffer Solution
・ Substrate (DTNB)
・ Standard GSH
・ Standard GSS
50 μl x1
60 ml x1
20 μl x1


Glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine) is a tripeptide present in the body, and it is involved in antioxidation, drug metabolism, and other as enzyme substrate of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and thiol transferase, etc. Glutathione is usually present as reduced form (GSH), but GSH is converted into its oxidized form (GSSG) by stimulation such as oxidative stress. Therefore, the ratio of GSH and GSSG has been noted as index of oxidative stress.
The GSSG/GSH Quantification kit contains Masking Reagent of GSH. The GSH can be deactivated in the sample by simply adding the Masking Reagent. Therefore, temp-only the GSSG is detected by measuring the absorption (λmax = 412 nm) of DTNB (5,5 Edithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) using the enzymatic recycling system. Also, GSH can be determined the quantity by subtracting GSSG from the total amount of glutathione.
The kit is limited to quantifying GSH/GSSG concentration from 0.5 μmol/l to 50 μmol/l and GSSG concentration from 0.5 μmol/l to 25 μmol/l.

Developer Dojindo Molecular Technologies, Inc.


Technical info



Selective Quantification
Although conventional masking reagent, 2-Vinylpyridine(2-VP), interferes the reaction of GSSG measurement, Dojindo’s masking reagent does not interfere the reaction of GSSG measurement. Therefore, the exact ratio of GSSG and GSH is obtained with Dojindo GSSG/GSH detection Kit.

Measurement of GSSG with or without GSH masking reagent

Reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol (DTT) and cysteine, or thiol reactive compounds such as maleimide compounds, interfere with the glutathione assay. Therefore, SH compounds, reducing agents and SH reactive materials should be avoided during the sample preparation.

Required Equipment and Materials
– Plate reader (405 or 415 nm filter)
– 96-well microplate
– Incubator (37ºC)
– 20 µl and 200 µl pipettes, a multi channel pipette
– 5-Sulfosalicylic Acid (SSA) Solution
– Ethanol

Assay Procedure

Application Data

Sulfasalazine Alters Intracellular Metabolites and Increases ROS in A549 Cells

After addition of sulfasalazine (SSZ), a known inhibitor of cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), to A549 cells, we observed changes in intracellular glutathione (GSH), ATP, α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), ROS and glutamate release. The results indicated that the addition of SSZ
The results showed that the addition of SSZ decreased intracellular ATP, glutathione (GSH) and glutamate release, and increased intracellular α-ketoglutarate and ROS.
 Cells: A549 cells (1 x 106 cells) Exposure time: 48 hours

Product in Use
- ATP Assay Kit-Luminescence
- α-Ketoglutarate Assay Kit-Fluorometric
- ROS Assay Kit -Highly Sensitive DCFH-DA- 

- Glutamate release: Glutamate Assay Kit-WST 


Shogo Okazaki et al., "Glutaminolysis-related genes determine sensitivity to xCT-targeted therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma". Cancer Sci.2019, doi:10.1111/cas.14182.



Application and Reference Using This Kit

Literature used “GSSG/GSH Quantification Kit”

Diurnal Variation of cadmium-induced mortality in mice
N. Miura, Y. Yanagiba, K. Ohtani, M. Mita, M. Togawa, and T. Hasegawa, J. Toxicol. Sci., 2012, 37(1), 191

– Measuring object: Hepatic GSH
– Sample: Liver (Mice)
– Preparation of sample
1) Homogenize liver sample in 5% SSA for 30 seconds in ice-water bath.
2) Centrifuge the homogenates consisting of 100 mg liver in 1 ml (10%) at 8,000 x g for 10 min. at 4°C to remove proteins.
3) Assay with supernatants for GSH using GSSG/GSH Quantification Kit according to the manufacture’s instruction.

Effect of Oxidative Stress on Secretory Function in Salivary Gland Cells
K. Okabayashi, T. Narita, Y. Takahashi, H. Sugiya, (2012), Oxidative Stress – Environmental Induction and Dietary Antioxidants, Edited by Volodymyr I. Lushchak, ISBN 978-953-51-0553-4, Hard cover, 388 pages, Publisher: InTech

– Measuring object: GSH
– Sample: Parotid acinar cells
– Preparation of sample
1) Collect parotid acinar cells by centrifugation at 10,000 g for 15 s and immediately mixed with 160 ul of 10 mM HCl.
2) Freeze and thraw the mixture three times over, then mix with 40 ul of 5% SSA and then centrifuge at 8,000 g for 10 minutes.
3) Collect the supernatant and dilute twice.

Chloroplast DNA Replication Is Regulated by the Redox State Independently of Chloroplast Division in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Y. Kabeya, and S. Miyagishima, Plant Physiol., 2013, 161, 2102

– Measuring object: GSH and GSSG
– Sample: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
– Preparation of sample
1) Collect Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells by 1,000g for 5 min and wash with PBS.
2) Resuspended in 5% SSA solution and disrupted by sonication.
3) Collect the supernatants by 15,000g for 5 min.
4) Isolate chloroplst by 700g for 5 min and wash with 50 mM HEPES-KOH, pH 7.5, containing 300mM sorbitol.
5) Resuspend in 5% SSA solution and centrifuge at 15,000g for 5 min

Selected publications
ER Stress Cooperates with Hypernutrition toTrigger TNF-Depe. Cancer Cell. 2014;26:331-343.
Purpose: Determine indicator of ER Stress in Liver

Mechanisms of cadmium-inducedchronotoxicity in mice. The journal of toxicological. 2013;38:947-957.
Purpose: Determine the GSH/GSSG ratio in cadmium exposed Liver

Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein SuppressesMitophagy by Interacting with Parkin in the Context of MitochondrialDepolarization. The American Journal of Pathology. 2014;184:3026-3039.
Purpose: Measure mitochondrial oxidative status in liver

Possible involvement of glutathione balance disruption in dihydropyrazine-induced cytotoxicity on human hepatoma HepG2 cells.The journal of toxicological.2012;37:1065-1069.
Purpose: Investigate fluctuation of GSH/GSSG ratio in the cytotoxicity HepG2 Cells

Induction of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to survival of Mycobacterium abscessus in humanmacrophages-likeTHP-1cells.Redox Biology. 2015;4:328-339.
Purpose: Determine redox state in macrophages

Age-related changes in salivary biomarkers.Journal of Dental Sciences. 2014;9:85-90.
Purpose: Measure GSH/GSSG ratio in salivary

Protective effects of hydrogen sulfideanions against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The journal oftoxicological. 2015;40:837-841.
Purpose: Measure glutathione of Hepatocyte


Open References

1) M. E. Anderson, "Determination of Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide in Biological Samples", Methods in Enzymol., 1985, 113, 548.
2) M. A. Baker, G. J. Cerniglia and A. Zaman, "Microtiter Plate Assay for the Measurement of Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide in Large Numbers of Biological Samples", Anal. Biochem., 1990, 190, 360.
3) C. Vandeputte, I. Guizon, I. Genestie-Denis, B. Vannier and G. Lorenzon, "A Micrototer Plate Assay for Total Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide Contents in Cultured/isolated Cells: Performance Study of a New Miniaturized Protocol", Cell Biol. Toxicol., 1994, 10, 415.
4) S. A. McGrath-Morrow and J. Stahl, "Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase in A549 Cells During Hyperoxia", Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 2002, 27, 99.
5) T. Sato, K. Seyama, Y. Sato, H. Mori, S. Souma, T. Akiyoshi, Y. Kodama, T. Mori, S. Goto, K. Takahashi, Y. Fukuchi, N. Maruyama and A. Ishigami, "Senescence Marker Protein-30 Protects Mice Lungs from Oxidative Stress, Aging, and Smoking", Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2006, 174, 530.
6) M. L. Mulhern, C. J. Madson, A. Danford, K. Ikesugi, P. F. Kador and T. Shinohara, "The Unfolded Protein Response in Lens Epithelial Cells from Galactosemic Rat Lenses", Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2006, 47(9), 3951.
7) N. Miura, Y. Yanagiba, K. Ohtani, M. Mita, and M. Togawa, "Diurnal Variation of Cadmium-induced Mortality in Mice", J. Toxicol. Sci., 2012, 37(1), 191.
8) K. Okabayashi, T. Narita, Y. Takahashi and H. Sugiya, "Effrct of Oxidative Stress on Secretory Function in Salivary Gland Cells", Oxidative Stress-Environmental Induction and Dietary Antioxidants, V. Lushchak, InTech, 2012, 189.
9) G. Tian, J. Sawashita, H. Kubo, S. Nishio, S. Hashimoto, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshimura, M. Tsuruoka, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Luo, Z. Xu, M. Mori, M. Kitano, K. Hosoe, T. Takeda, S. Usami and K. Higuchi, "Ubiquinol-10 Supplementation Activates Mitochondria Functions to Decelerate Senescence in Senescence-Accelerated Mice", Antioxid. Redox Signal., 2014, 20(16), 2606.
10) H. Nakagawa, A. Umemura, K. Taniguchi, J. Font-Burgada, D. Dhar, H. Ogata, Z. Zhong, M. A. Valasek, E. Seki, J. Hidalgo, K. Koike, R. J. Kaufman and M. Karin, "ER Stress Cooperates with Hypernutrition to Trigger TNF-Dependent Spontaneous HCC Development", Cancer cell, 2014, 26(3), 331.
11) M. Sueyoshi, M. Fukunaga, M. Mei, A. Nakajima, G. Tanaka, T. Murase, Y. Narita, S. Hirata, and D. Kadowaki, "Effects of lactulose on renal function and gut microbiota in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats", Clinical and Experimental Nephrology., 2019,doi: 10.1007/s10157-019-01727-4.
12) S. Shiromizu, T. Yamauchi, N. Kusunose, N. Matsunaga, S. Koyanagi and S. Ohdo, Dosing Time-Dependent Changes in the Anti-tumor Effect of xCT Inhibitor Erastin in Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Mice', Biol. Pharm. Bull.., 2019, 42, (11), 1921-1925.

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