Chemical Name: 1-[2-Amino-5-(3-dimethylamino-6-dimethylammonio-9-xanthenyl)phenoxy]-2-(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetraacetoxymethyl ester, bromide
Appearance: Dark purple solid
MW: 1123.94, C52H59BrN4O19
Storage Condition: -20ºC, protect from light and moisture
Shipping Condition: ambient temperature
Rhod 2 has the longest fluorescent
wavelength signal of all the calcium indicators. It has a rhodamine-like
fluorophore whose excitation and emission maxima are 557 nm and 581 nm,
respectively. This makes it a convenient excitation source for argon
and krypton lasers. Although it was thought that the fluorescent signal
of Rhod 2 temp-only increases several times with the calcium complex,
Dojindo’s Rhod 2 increases its signal with calcium 80-100 times because
of its high purity. Its signal intensity is the strongest of all the
calcium probes. Rhod 2 is thus highly recommended as a probe for
intracellular calcium monitoring using laser microscopes. Rhod 2 is
reported to have a better loading profile at the point of localization,
especially in neural slice cultures. The dissociation constant of Rhod 2
with calcium (Kd=1.0 mM) is the highest of all the fluorescent calcium
probes, providing a wider range for monitoring calcium concentration.
Rhod 2-AM is an acetoxymethyl ester derivative of Rhod 2 that can be
easily loaded into cells using the AM method.
1. M. Burnier, et al., Confocal Microscopy
to Analyze Cytosolic and Nuclear Calcium in Cultured Vascular Cells. Am
J Physiol. 1994;266:C1118-C1127.
2. J. Vergara, et al., Imaging of Calcium Transients in Skeletal Muscle Fibers. Biophys J. 1991;59:12-24.
3. T. Meyer, et al., Kinetics of Calcium Channel Opening by Inositol 1, 4, 5-Trisphosphate. Biochemistry. 1990;29:32-37.
A. Minta, et al., Fluorescent Indicators for Cytosolic Calcium Based on
Rhodamine and Fluorescein Chromophores. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:8171-8178.
D. R. Trollinger, et al., Selective Loading of Rhod 2 into Mitochondria
Shows Mitochondrial Ca2+ Transients during the Contractile Cycle in
Adult Rabbit Cardiac Myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;236:738-742.